Using bosonization methods we consider the Lagrangian model describing the electron-phonon system using a slowly-varying phonon amplitude approximation. The phase of the phonon field is fermionized and the effective model is mapped into the chiral Gross-Neveu model with two Fermi field species. The chiral density of the electron field and the phase of the phonon field condensate as a soliton order parameter. The incommensurate charge-density wave can be pictured as a collective excitation of the combined motion of both the electrons and lattice ions, accomplished by a dynamical electron-lattice energy redistribution (Peierls' energy gap generation). © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Belvedere, L. V., Do Amaral, R. L. P. G., & de Queiroz, A. F. (2001). Dynamical Peierls’ energy gap generation in one-dimensional charge-density waves systems. Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics, 289(4–5), 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9601(01)00607-7