The effect of inorganic copper species was studied by recording the receptor potential, electro-olfactogram (EOG), from the olfactory epithelium of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). In a series of experiments, the olfactory organ was irrigated with aqueous copper solutions with concentrations of the free cupric ion (Cu2+) ranging from 0.2 to 9.7 μM. The diverse copper species were created by varying the amount of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in artificial freshwater solutions of equal total copper concentrations. In general, these copper solutions induced a slow depolarization of the baseline followed by a hyperpolarization. The amplitudes of these variations in baseline potentials increased with increasing concentrations of Cu2+ ion, i.e., decreasing concentrations of NaHCO3. Stimulating the olfactory epithelium with l-alanine during the copper exposure evoked atypical EOG responses. The amplitudes and form of the EOGs changed drastically with increasing Cu2+ concentrations, with significant correlation between the reduction in EOG amplitudes and the Cu2+ concentration. The results indicate that among the copper species tested the toxic effect is caused mainly by the dissolved Cu2+ ion. The results also suggest that the Cu2+ ion exerts its toxic effects on the transduction mechanisms of the olfactory receptor cells. The different EOG profiles obtained in response to varying Cu2+ concentrations indicate that this ion affects the transduction mechanisms at different stages. © 1992.
Winberg, S., Bjerselius, R., Baatrup, E., & Døving, K. B. (1992). The effect of Cu(II) on the electro-olfactogram (EOG) of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in artificial freshwater of varying inorganic carbon concentrations. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 24(2), 167–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-6513(92)90045-5