Elastic-plastic finite element analysis has been carried out to evaluate collapse moments of six elbows with elbow factors varying from 0.24 to 0.6. Collapse moment is obtained by twice elastic slope method from the moment vs. end-rotation curve. The effect of internal pressure on in-plane closing/opening collapse moment is studied. For various elbow factors and level of internal pressure, total 60 and 54 cases are analysed for closing and opening mode of bending moment, respectively. Based on these results, two closed-form equations are proposed to evaluate the collapse moments of elbows under combined internal pressure and in-plane closing and opening bending moment. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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