The dynamics of a bipolaron in a phenylene ring polymer in the presence of a high electric field was studied by using an extended tight-binding model. Due to the strong electron-phonon coupling, the doped electrons cannot dissociate from the lattice even if the applied electric field is as high as up to 5 × 106V/cm. The lattice potential energy and the electronic energy oscillate out of phase. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, L. X., Liu, D. S., Xie, S. J., Han, S. H., & Mei, L. M. (2003). Energy evolution of bipolaron in phenylene ring polymer under high electric field. In Optical Materials (Vol. 23, pp. 485–488). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-3467(02)00344-0