Gallium replication in aquatic and nonaquatic organism scanning electron microscopy

  • Adachi E
  • 5


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 2


    Citations of this article.


A technique using pure gallium metal as a replication material is reported for biological surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The technique first directly enables aquatic organisms in water to be replicated due to gallium's low melting point and, second, reproduces surface structures and images of the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of substances transferred from the original surface to the gallium surface due to gallium's high surface tension. An aquatic protozoan in water was directly replicated to show its typical surface structures. The technique was then used to visualize human hair surface structures and 2D transferred substance distribution using X-ray microanalysis. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Microscopic methods
  • Sample preparation and handling
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Specifically for biological samples
  • X-ray microanalysis

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Eiki Adachi

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free