We introduce a generalized view of the physical origin of the Boson peak in the gauge-invariant formula. Especially the localized modes (massive gauge modes), which correspond to the Boson peak, are required naturally through the Higgs mechanism in the present theory. Furthemore, it is proposed that the duality symmetry between the new order parameter and the new disorder parameter might be related to the melting. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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