Wavelength routed optical networks have emerged as a technology that can effectively utilize the enormous bandwidth of the optical fiber. Wavelength converters play an important role in enhancing the fiber utilization and reducing the overall call blocking probability of the network. As the distortion of the optical signal increases with the increase in the range of wavelength conversion in optical wavelength converters, limited range wavelength conversion assumes importance. Placement of wavelength converters is a NP complete problem [K.C. Lee, V.O.K. Li, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11 (1993) 962-970] in an arbitrary mesh network. In this paper, we investigate heuristics for placing limited range wavelength converters in arbitrary mesh wavelength routed optical networks. The objective is to achieve near optimal placement of limited range wavelength converters resulting in reduced blocking probabilities and low distortion of the optical signal. The proposed heuristic is to place limited range wavelength converters at the most congested nodes, nodes which lie on the long lightpaths and nodes where conversion of optical signals is significantly high. We observe that limited range converters at few nodes can provide almost the entire improvement in the blocking probability as the full range wavelength converters placed at all the nodes. Congestion control in the network is brought about by dynamically adjusting the weights of the channels in the link thereby balancing the load and reducing the average delay of the traffic in the entire network. Simulations have been carried out on a 12-node ring network, 14-node NSFNET, 19-node European Optical Network (EON), 28-node US long haul network, hypothetical 30-node INET network and the results agree with the analysis. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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