Immunological Activity of Chondroitin Sulfate

  • Toida T
  • Sakai S
  • Akiyama H
 et al. 
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The use of chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) has become very popular; however, it has also been the subject of controversy for several reasons. First, the nutraceutical industry is less regulated than the pharmaceutical industry and thus, the nutraceutical CS often suffers from poor quality control. Second, the bioavailability of orally administered CS is not generally accepted. Third, the mechanism of the effect of CS for treatment of OA remains unclear. There is abundant in vitro and in vivo evidence from animal and human clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of CS. This chapter focuses on the immunological activity of structurally regulated CSs. The mechanism of this immunological activity appears to be through CS binding to receptors related to cytokine production in lymphocytes such as splenocytes.

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  • Toshihiko Toida

  • Shinobu Sakai

  • Hiroshi Akiyama

  • Robert J. Linhardt

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