Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as one of the most important signaling molecules in living organisms. In addition to the direct effects of NO, recent studies have revealed that protein modifications by NO, such as nitration or S-nitrosation, are also of biological significance as regulatory mechanisms that can affect cellular functions. Both protein modifications occur as a consequence of oxidative/nitrative stress. Some of these protein modifications have been found in mitochondria, and in certain cases the corresponding activities and/or pathways affected have been identified. The protein modifications can result as collateral damage during normal or pathological oxidative/nitrative stress, or in more localized, controlled situations that modulate signal transduction pathways. As an example of these complex phenomena, we discuss the interplay among the malaria parasite, mosquito and host, focusing on the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and protein modifications in controlling parasite development. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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