We demonstrate that scanning tunneling microscopy is an ideal tool for the investigation of individual bulk defects and dopant atoms in semiconductors. This technique allows not only an atomically resolved imaging of individual defects and dopant atoms, but rather a detailed determination of their nanoscale electronic as well as structural properties and their concentrations. The capacities of scanning tunneling microscopy for defect investigations will be presented with help of selected examples. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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