This chapter discusses the influence of highway-related pollutants on environmental quality. The chapter proves that the highway sources are involved in pollution of the atmosphere, surface dust, soil and water (including rainfall and runoff). Material and acoustic forms of pollution are involved, both may exert adverse effects on the living and non-living environment and these effects are expected to increase. The chapter examines and quantifies the pollutant sources, their transport through the environment, the monitoring of their levels, and their effects. The levels of pollutants at any point in the environment are determined by: (1) source emission rates, (2) dispersion characteristics, and (3) removal rates. When the meteorological factors are combined with high emissions of precursor pollutants, the oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, photochemical air pollution develops. The most commonly used indicator of smog formation is the concentration of ozone. Two procedures for modeling the soiling process have been proposed. Both assume that soiling is due to deposition of particulate matter from the atmosphere. The potential for technological and legal control is also considered in the chapter.
Ball, D. J., Hamilton, R. S., & Harrison, R. M. (1991). The influence of highway-related pollutants on environmental quality. In Studies in Environmental Science (Vol. 44, pp. 1–47). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-1116(08)70079-7