Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an important avian pathogen may cause both respiratory disease and joint inflammation synovitis in poultry, causing economic losses to the Brazilian poultry industry. The genotypic variation in 16S rRNA gene is unknown. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene of 19 strains of M. synoviae were sequenced and analyzed in order to obtain molecular characterization and evaluation of the genetic variability of strains from distinct Brazilian areas of poultry production. Different polymorphic patterns were observed. The number of polymorphic alterations in the studied strains ranged from 0 to 6. The nucleotide variations, including deletion, insertion and substitutions, ranged from 3 to 5. The genotypic diversity observed in this study may be explained by spontaneous mutations that may occur when a lineage remains in the same flock for long periods. The culling and reposition in poultry flocks may be responsible for the entry of new strains in different areas.
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