The extrusion process through a die aperture inclined at a fixed angle, previously proposed by the authors, is applied to forming of rectangular bars and tubes with various cross-sectional shapes, and the fundamental properties of the process are investigated. The curvature of the extruded bar is found to decrease as the height and width of the die aperture increase. The curvatures of the extruded tubes agree fairly well with those of the solid bars, and further, close correlations are found between the curvatures of the rectangular and H-type bars, and between those of the rectangular and H-type tubes. The curvatures of the rectangular bars and tubes with flanges can be predicted by combining the fundamental bending properties of the process obtained in extrusion of the rectangular bars with the shape effect of the bars and tubes. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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