Three of the most important catalytic systems for isomerization of lactose to lactulose have been studied, i.e: sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and boric acid, and sodium aluminate. Effect of parameters such as catalyst concentration, processing time and temperature on rate of reaction, maximum conversion of lactose to lactulose and by-product formation have been investigated. Variation of sugars concentration (lactose, lactulose, galactose) with time have also been studied. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zokaee, F., Kaghazchi, T., Zare, A., & Soleimani, M. (2002). Isomerization of lactose to lactulose - Study and comparison of three catalytic systems. Process Biochemistry, 37(6), 629–635. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(01)00251-5