Previous evidence of strong interactions between learning and human treadmill locomotion led to a simplified system for studying learned rhythms in a framework of behavioral ecology. Motor control combined with instrumental conditioning in a rhythmic hand task with repeating trials, blocks, and complete regimens. Regimen contexts differed with respect to the pattern of stimulation before and after an electromyographic (EMG) response. Both an antecedent stimulus (a light flash) and a consequent stimulus (a tone indicating success or failure) were necessary for conditioning. Arguments were given for defining reinforcement as a composite of interdependent and size-scaled processes, some including knowledge of results, instead of as a single event after a response. © 1990.
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