An enormous increase in liver transplantation has been observed over the last decade since it now represents a suitable therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease. The overall one-year survival rate is about 75% for adults and 85% for children, when fulminant hepatic failure and malignancies are excluded. Such improvements in both survival and quality of life are due to many concurrent factors: better timing and selection; development of the UW solution for liver preservation; improvement in operative management including surgical technique, veno-venous bypass and cellsaver; progress in intensive care management of immunosupressed patients. Nevertheless, the increasing demand for livers is now confronting the transplant teams with organ shortage, for which the introduction of graft reduction, hepatic biparition and living-related donation will contribute to alleviate the scarcity of donors. As a consequence of the increasing number of long-term survivors, greater efforts are now being directed towards the long-term outcome after liver transplantation: disease recurrence, the need for permanent immunosuppression and the quality of rehabilitation will become the challenges of the 1990s before reaching the next step towards multiple organ transplantation. liver transplantation. © 1992.
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