Maxadilan and its truncated variant, M65, are agonist and antagonist specific, respectively, for the PAC1 receptor. PAC1 is the specific receptor for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), which is not shared by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). PACAP is a ubiquitous peptide of the glucagon superfamily that is involved in glucose homeostasis and regulation of insulin secretion. This study employed the recombinant maxadilan and M65 to evaluate the PAC1 receptor-mediated effects on energy metabolism using NIH mice. First, the acute effect of maxadilan-induced hyperglycemia was blocked by M65. In long-term studies, NIH mice were given daily intraperitoneal injections with maxadilan, M65, or vehicle for 21 days. Maxadilan suppressed feeding and enhanced water intake significantly for the first several days. After that period, maxadilan treatment continued to promote food and water intake. Long-term administration of maxadilan led to an increase in body weight (P < 0.01), decrease in body fat (P < 0.01), down-regulation of basal plasma glucose (P < 0.01), upregulation of basal plasma insulin (P < 0.01) and improved glucose tolerance (P < 0.01) and insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01). An elevation in plasma LDL (P < 0.01) was also observed in the maxadilan group. However, M65 displayed no significant adverse effects on the aforementioned parameters except basal plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The significant changes induced by maxadilan indicate that the PAC1 receptor plays multiple key roles in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis in mice. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, R., Yi, T., Xie, S., & Hong, A. (2008). Long-term administration of maxadilan improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. Peptides, 29(8), 1347–1353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2008.03.017