Feeding oils containing various proportions of the monounsaturated oleic (18:1 n-9) and petroselinic (18:1 n-12) acids to rats was found to strongly affect the levels of arachidonate (AA, 20:4 n-6) [J Nutr 1995;125: 1563- 1568; Nutr Res 1997; 17: 89-97] and docosahexaenoate (DHA, 22:6 n-3) [Nutr Res 1998; 18: 851-861] in liver and heart. In continuation of the above studies the pattern of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in brain lipids was examined in male Wistar rats that were fed isocaloric diets containing 120 g/kg diet of conventional low-oleic sunflower oil (SF), high- oleic sunflower (HOS) and olive oils (OLI), medium-oleic Canola-type rapeseed oil (RAP) and high-petroselinic coriander oil (COR) for 10 wk. In the total lipids of brain the proportion of DHA was significantly higher after feeding OLI and RAP as compared to SF and COR. In phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylcholines (PC) the proportion of DHA was significantly higher after feeding RAP as compared to SF and COR, which is attributed to a relatively high level of α-linolenic acid in RAP. The proportion of AA and other n-6 LC-PUFA in both PE and PC was significantly lower after feeding COR than each of the other diets, which is envisaged to be caused by the presence in COR of high proportion of petroselinic acid having a Δ6-double bond that inhibits the Δ6-desaturase as a pseudo-product by mimicking the structure of 18:3 n-6, a precursor of AA. Some dietary oil-mediated alteration in the proportions of lignoceric (24:0) and nervonic (24:1) acids was observed in the sphingomyelins (SM) of brain.
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