A new Monte Carlo simulation program, BIOMCSIM, is presented that has been developed in particular to simulate the behaviour of biomolecular systems, leading to insights and understanding of their functions. The computational complexity in Monte Carlo simulations of high density systems, with large molecules like proteins immersed in a solvent medium, or when simulating the dynamics of water molecules in a protein cavity, is enormous. The program presented in this paper seeks to provide these desirable features putting special emphasis on simulations in grand canonical ensembles. It uses different biasing techniques to increase the convergence of simulations, and periodic load balancing in its parallel version, to maximally utilize the available computer power. In periodic systems, the long-ranged electrostatic interactions can be treated by Ewald summation. The program is modularly organized, and implemented using an ANSI C dialect, so as to enhance its modifiability. Its performance is demonstrated in benchmark applications for the proteins BPTI and Cytochrome c Oxidase. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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