Against the current concept of abortive regeneration of axotomized neurons in the mammalian central nervous system, the occurrence of remarkable axonal regeneration of cerebellothalamic projection neurons following transection of the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle was proved in kittens morphologically by utilizing anterograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase and electrophysiologically by recording the cerebellar-induced cerebral cortical potential. Following axotomy, not only axonal regeneration occurred but also retrograde degeneration of somata which was apparently noticeable as cell loss. The extent of cerebellar nuclear cell loss was inversely related to the extent of regeneration of cerebellofugal axons. © 1981.
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