Electrical neuromodulation is a therapeutic option for treating chronically painful conditions that are resistant to more conventional treatments. Peripheral neuromodulation is an option for treating occipital neuralgias in cases where conservative treatments have failed. In this paper, we describe the relevant anatomy, proposed mechanisms of action, and procedural aspects of using peripheral neuromodulation to treat occipital neuralgias. We conclude that peripheral neuromodulation can be an efficacious treatment option; however, further well-controlled studies are warranted. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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