An outline is given of stochastic state-transition models that have been developed to predict life loss and monetary loss for multi-storey, multi-compartment buildings subject to fire. The stochastic models consider the extent and the effects of smoke and flame spread. Results obtained from the stochastic models can be used to select an appropriate design strategy for the provision of fire safety and protection in buildings, based on the dual attainment of a satisfactory level of predicted life loss and an optimum level of fire-cost expectation. The fire-cost expectation considers costs due to fire losses and the provision of fire-safety and protection measures. © 1983.
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