Oxidative degradation of chlortoluron, propiconazole, and metalaxyl in suspension cultures of various crop plants

  • Owen W
  • Donzel B
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Abstract

The metabolism of chlortoluron, (N′-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-N,N-dimethylurea), propiconazole (1-[2-(2′,4′-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole), and metalaxyl (dl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(2′-methoxyacetyl) alanine methyl ester) was investigated in suspension cultures of crop species for which differences in metabolism had been demonstrated at the intact plant level. Uptake and metabolism of chlortoluron by cultures of Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) was slow, the metabolites detected (42% of applied radioactivity after 13 days) being products of ring methyl oxidation and N-monodealkylation reactions. In sharp contrast, metabolism in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) suspension culture was extremely fast (72% after 4 hr) and was attributed to extensive N-didealkylation in addition to rapid ring methyl oxidation. This rate of metabolism also implied a very rapid uptake of chlortoluron by the cotton culture.14C-labelled propiconazole became rapidly associated with cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) following treatment of suspension cultures. Uptake was initially more rapid in the rice culture (36% of applied radioactivity after 8 h compared to 19% for wheat) which, together with a slower rate of metabolism, resulted in more unchanged propiconazole being associated with rice cells. On a parts-per-million basis these results indicated an apparent 10-fold accumulation of propiconazole in rice cells compared to 5-fold in the wheat culture. Propiconazole metabolite patterns were similar in cultures of both species and indicated side-chain hydroxylation as the principal pathway. Uptake of metalaxyl was slow in suspension cultures of both lettuce and potato (≅ 20% after 17 days). Subsequent metabolism was also slow but appeared to be limited by the poor rate of uptake. Both cultures were found to be similarly versatile with respect to metabolic attack on metalaxyl, which included ring methyl hydroxylation, aryl hydroxylation, ester cleavage, ether cleavage (O-dealkylation), and N-dealkylation (side-chain cleavage), the hydroxylation reactions being quatitatively the more important. The results for all three pesticides are compared to those obtained previously from studies with intact plants of the same species. © 1986.

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Authors

  • W. J. Owen

  • B. Donzel

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