Rapid cold hardening in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

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Abstract

A rapid cold hardening process is reported in first instar larvae of Frankliniella occidentalis. When larvae are transferred directly from 20°C to -11.5°C for 2 h there is 78% mortality, whereas exposure to 0°C for 4 h prior to transfer to -11.5°C reduces mortality to 10%. The response can also be induced by exposure to 5°C for 4 h or by gradual cooling at rates between 0.1 and 0.5°C min-1. The acquired cold tolerance is transient and is rapidly lost (after 1 h at 20°C). Rapid cold hardening extends survival times at -11.5°C and depresses lethal temperatures in short (2 h) exposures. Rearing at 15°C (12L:12D), (a cold acclimation regime for F. occidentalis), does not protect against the cold shock induced by direct transfer to - 11.5°C (which rapid cold hardening does) but does extend survival time at - 5°C (i.e. increased chill tolerance) whilst rapid cold hardening does not. The rapid and longer term cold hardening responses in F. occidentalis therefore appear to have different underlying mechanisms.

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McDonald, J. R., Bale, J. S., & Walters, K. F. A. (1997). Rapid cold hardening in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Journal of Insect Physiology, 43(8), 759–766. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1910(97)00033-4

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