Terminal list-items are recalled best in immediate free recall, but recalled worst in a second recall test (Craik, 1970). In Experiment I, testing initially with ordered recall instead of free recall did not affect the recall level of terminal list-items in a second recall test. In Experiment II, a recognition test was given after the second recall test. Items from terminal list-positions were recognized at least as well as most other list-items. It was concluded that the low recall level of terminal list-items in the second recall test reflects the low retrievability of these items rather than weak registration of these items in memory. © 1970 Academic Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, R. L. (1970). Recency effects in long-term recall and recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9(6), 672–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(70)80031-7