Chloroplasts, bearing genetic information for some of their proteins, contain the full apparatus for expression of these genes. The chloroplast ribosomes, in chloroplast lysates, are divided between those free in the soluble stroma phase and those apparently attached to the thylakoids. This review is concerned with considerable evidence for differential functions of the two kinds of polysomes. Since both classes of polysomes may be associated with a similar set of mRNAs, there must be specific, as yet unidentified, controls over which of these is translated in the given environment. Thus current studies on thylakoid-bound ribosomes raise the question of another level of regulation of gene expression inside chloroplasts. © 1990.
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