We present velocity spectra and angular distributions of secondary electrons emitted from cleaned surfaces of thin carbon and gold foils penetrated by H+(Ep= 0.8 and 1.2 MeV), H2+(Ep/Mp= 0.8 MeV/u) and C+(Vp= 2.30- and 2.85 VB). Prominent structures in doubly differential velocity spectra d2n/dEdΩ of secondary electrons (SE) are (1) the "true SE" peak at low electron energies Ee< 10 eV, (2) the binary encounter peak at electron velocities Ve= 2Vpcos θ (observation angle θ), (3) convoy electrons at Ve= Vp(θ = 0°), (4) loss electrons (from ions carrying electrons) at Ve= - Vpat θ = 180° (backward direction!), and (5) low-energy peaks (Ee< 25 eV) resulting from the decay of plasmons. Another collective effect, the directed emission of shock electrons perpendicular to the heavy-ion-induced wake in the electron plasma of the solid, can be observed in angular distributions of secondary electrons. This phenomenon is used to study the refraction of low-energy electrons at solid surfaces. Furthermore, it was found that secondary electron emission from metals and YBaCuO high-temperature superconductors depends on the target temperature. © 1990.
Rothard, H., Kroneberger, K., Schosnig, M., Lorenzen, P., Veje, E., Keller, N., … Groeneveld, K. O. (1990). Secondary-electron velocity spectra and angular distributions from ions penetrating thin solids. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, 48(1–4), 616–620. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(90)90195-Z