A complete second-order space-time description of ion movement in a two-stage electric field mirror is derived. The elements of the resulting transfer matrix account for ion coordinates and angles both in the deflection plane and the plane normal to it, as well as the ion energy and flight time. Formulas are given to compute the resolving power of energy focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometers with single-stage and two-stage mirrors. © 1989.
Ioanoviciu, D., Yefchak, G. E., & Enke, C. G. (1989). Second-order space-time transfer matrix of the two-stage electrostatic mirror. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, 94(3), 281–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1176(89)80049-7