This chapter reviews evidence for the separate acoustic, motoric, and linguistic levels of representation of the skill of speech. The production of speech involves a series of very rapid movements of many different parts of the oral motor system. In speech, two types of perturbation procedures are introduced: static and dynamic perturbations. A key feature of speech production is that the units of the linguistic representation map onto the units of the physical production of sound. The chapter focuses on the problems associated with mapping linguistic units onto movements and outlines some of the problems associated with the articulatory/acoustic mapping. The relationship between the acoustic and articulatory aspects of speech is complicated by a number of factors including (1) there is a non-uniqueness problem in the mapping between the acoustic patterns and vocal tract shapes; (2) there are nonlinearities in the production of sound in the vocal tract; (3) and the vocal tract is a redundant system with excess degrees of freedom that can be used in different ways to achieve the same vocal tract shape. © 1993, Elsevier Science & Technology All rights reserved.
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