The ancient gravel stratum near Nanjing, China, is a major stratum of Cenozoic age along the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River. This paper first presents a typical geological profile and material composition of the ancient gravel stratum, and then discusses its geologic origin, soil-rock-forming processes, engineering mechanical properties, and their relations. These analyses are useful for city planning, geotechnical engineering, construction, and characterization of the geological environment in the Nanjing area. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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