Two routes are described to achieve the formation of stable sols and the conversion of sols to gels in multicomponent systems with zirconia as a major component. Physical and chemical gelation have been obtained according to whether the peptization of thin powders or the polymerization of metal organic compounds were involved in the preparation of the gels. In both cases metal alkoxides of zirconium, silicon, aluminum and sodium were chosen as starting materials. Controlled hydrolysis and copolymerization of these alkoxides were performed through esterification of ethanol by acetic acid or the formation of zirconium glycoxide by reaction with ethylene glycol. © 1986.
Guizard, C., Cygankiewicz, N., Larbot, A., & Cot, L. (1986). Sol-gel transition in zirconia systems using physical and chemical processes. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 82(1–3), 86–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(86)90114-6