Previous evidence suggests that androgen activity is necessary for strange males to disrupt early pregnancy in mice. Inseminated females were housed below castrated males, separated by a wire-mesh grid. Castrated males did not disrupt pregnancy, whereas those given daily injections of 27 or 81 μg of 17β-estradiol did so. In conjunction with previous evidence, these data suggest a similarity between the hormones involved in the capacity of males to disrupt pregnancy and the hormones directly implicated in the females' vulnerability to pregnancy disruption. © 1995.
Catanzaro, D. de, Smith, M., & Muir, C. (1995). Strange-male-induced pregnancy disruption in mice: Potentiation by administration of 17β-estradiol to castrated males. Physiology and Behavior, 58(2), 405–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(95)00064-P