Surface segregation of Pb in Al-0.13-13at.-ppm Pb foils and Fe in Al-6-140at.-ppm Fe foils after heat treatment was studied by Rutherford back-scattering spectroscopy (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of segregation (segregated composition/foil composition) was greater than 1500 in the Al-Pb system but is less than 160 in the Al-Fe system. The maximum segregation temperature was 923K in the Al-Pb system, but was 723K in the Al-Fe system. Lead segregated not to the aluminum surface but to the oxide film. Iron, however, segregated at the aluminum surface, i.e., at the interface of the oxide film/aluminum matrix. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsubakino, H., Nogami, A., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamoto, A., Terasawa, M., Mitamura, T., … Horino, Y. (2004). Surface segregation phenomena of solute elements in Al-Pb and Al-Fe dilute binary alloys. In Applied Surface Science (Vol. 238, pp. 464–468). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.05.244