We show that the time-dependent nonlinear wave equation in closed-circuit photovoltaic media can exhibit quasi-steady-state and steady-state spatial solitons. We demonstrate that the formation time of open-circuit quasi-steady-state and open-circuit steady-state dark solitons decreases with an increase in the intensity ratio of the soliton, which is the ratio between the soliton peak intensity and the dark irradiance. We find that for the time-dependent nonlinear wave equation that exhibits only an open-circuit steady-state dark soliton, changing the electric current density J0does not generate quasi-steady-state dark solitons and affects the formation time of steady-state dark solitons and that for the time-dependent nonlinear wave equation that exhibits an open-circuit quasi-steady-state dark soliton, changing J0gives rise to three different time evolution regimes of the full width half maximum of the soliton's intensity. The first regime shows that the formation time of steady-state dark solitons increases with J0whereas the formation time of quasi-steady-state dark solitons is independent of J0. The second regime shows that the formation time of steady-state dark solitons decreases with an increases in J0and the formation time of quasi-steady-state dark solitons increases with J0. The third regime shows that changing J0enables only steady-state dark solitons in the time-dependent nonlinear wave equation, of which the formation time increases with J0. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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