The steady state of a catalyst is often dependent on the composition of the reacting system, so the kinetics observed in systems far from equilibrium can be very different from equilibrium kinetics. Exact constraints on first-order kinetics are derived: limits to individual rate constants are found in two component systems only. However, most practical catalysts are shown to perform as if the principle of microscopic reversibility could be applied approximately at points away from equilibrium. © 1981.
Spencer, M. S. (1981). Thermodynamic constraints on multicomponent catalytic systems. I. Limits to first-order kinetics. Journal of Catalysis, 67(2), 259–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(81)90285-2