Epitaxial (111)-oriented C60films have been grown on alkali-halide substrates, KCl (100), KBr (100) and NaCl (100) by a three-step process: (1), substrate surface cleaning by high temperature heating; (2), initial deposition with a low deposition rate to grow two or three monolayers (ML); and (3), deposition with a high deposition rate to grow a film with expected thickness. It was found that (111)-oriented epitaxial C60films could be grown at low temperatures in a wide temperature range, from 40 to 120°C. By this three-step process, we can also grow epitaxial C60films at deposition rates as high as 35 angstrom/min.
Dai, Z., Naramoto, H., Narumi, K., Yamamoto, S., & Miyashita, A. (2000). Three-step process for epitaxial growth of (111)-oriented C60films on alkali-halide substrates. Thin Solid Films, 360(1–2), 28–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(99)00877-9