Two patients with malignant lymphoma complicated by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) are reported. Their clinical signs at onset were similar to those of orbital cellulitis. Lymphoma complicated by hemophagocytosis is called lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS) and its prognosis is reported to be very poor. As far as we know, this is the first report in the ophthalmological field. In our patients, we suspected that the lesions occurred from the orbit or skin of this area. The first patient was a 22-year-old man and the second patient a 16-year-old girl. The diagnosis was very difficult at the onset of disease. They died within 6 months after the first ophthalmological examination. When orbital cellulitis is suspected and antibiotic therapy is ineffective, we should suspect HPS and should examine serum ferritin, which is a good marker of HPS. Early biopsy and consultation with a hematologist are very important.
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