To identify the driving force for the massive spalling phenomenon, carefully designed experiments were carried out. Cu-doped Sn-rich solder was reacted with Ni to form first the Sn-0.6Cu/(Cu,Ni)6Sn5/Ni structure. The original Sn-0.6Cu solder was then removed and replaced with Sn-0.3Cu or with fresh Sn-0.6Cu. Swapping the solder to Sn-0.3Cu caused massive spalling of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. The results of this study unequivocally prove that the massive spalling reported in the literature is caused by a driving force that is purely thermodynamic in nature. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc.
Chen, W. M., Yang, S. C., Tsai, M. H., & Kao, C. R. (2010). Uncovering the driving force for massive spalling in the Sn-Cu/Ni system. Scripta Materialia, 63(1), 47–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2010.03.008