Primary rat astrocytes were found by immunohistochemistry to display positive staining for endothelin-3, located predominantly in the perinuclear area. The ability of these cells to produce and release endothelin-3 was confirmed by a combination of reverse-phase HPLC and radioimmunoassay, specific for endothelin-3, which demonstrated immunoreactive peptide in cellular extracts and astrocyte-conditioned medium. In addition, astrocytes were shown to possess a single class of binding sites for endothelin with comparable high affinity for endothelin-1, -2 and -3. These results suggests that astrocytes, by virtue of their ability to produce and secrete endothelin-3, serve as a potential extravascular source of intracerebral vasoregulation capable of influencing regional cerebral blood flow. © 1991.
Ehrenreich, H., Kerhl, J. H., Anderson, R. W., Rieckmann, P., Vitkovic, L., Coligan, J. E., & Fauci, A. S. (1991). A vasoactive peptide, endothelin-3, is produced by and specifically binds to primary astrocytes. Brain Research, 538(1), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(91)90375-6