The nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp) are important parasites of food animals and primates. The archaic line that parasitizes pigs appears to be less pathogenic than the parallel evolutionary lines in ruminants and primates. Morphological types of O. dentatum in pigs and an apparent new host record for O. venulosum, which normally affects sheep and wild ruminants, in cattle suggests aggressive recruitment within the genus. The same Oesophagostomum spp occur in humans and in non-human primates but it is not clear which is the natural host. © 1989.
Stewart, T. B., & Gasbarre, L. C. (1989). The veterinary importance of nodular worms (Olesophagostomum spp). Parasitology Today. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-4758(89)90269-X