The International Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) is the official journal of the International Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF). The journal is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed open access journal, covering all areas of energy and environment related fields that apply to the science and engineering communities. The journal enjoys the full support of the IEEF, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone. IJEE aims to promote rapid communication and dialogue among researchers, scientists, and engineers working in the areas of energy and environment. The journal provides a focus for activities concerning the development, assessment and management of energy and environment related programs. The emphasis is placed on original research, both analytical and experimental, which is of permanent interest to engineers and scientists, covering all aspects of energy and environment. It is hoped that this journal will prove to be an important factor in raising the standards of discussion, analyses, and evaluations relating to energy and environment programs. All manuscripts with significant research results in the areas of energy and environment and their application are welcome.