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Yonghe Zhang

  • CChem MRSC
  • Founder, Chartered Chemist and Philosophy Researcher
  • American Huilin Institute, Website
  • 1Followers
  • 1Following

Research interests

analyze the universal presence and predict the world future.American Huilin Institute is an interdisciplinary and nonpartisan research website. Follow the Universal law that everything exists in ionocovalent potential


Yonghe Zhang - Google+ Tagline: Everything exists in ionocovalent potential. Yonghe Zhang (born 27 October 1940, other name Huilin), American scientist. He is the most influential proponent of Ionocovalency (IC) theory: “Everything exists in ionocovalent potential”. IC theory includes many chemical models which correlates ionic-covalent dual nature with quantum-mechanic and spectroscopy and quantitatively describes 1s-nf chemical phenomena, correlates qualitatively to the universal observations and is widely used and formed International Ionocovalency Schools. He founded the American Huilin Institute (Interdisciplinary Science Websites), which follows the IC theory, analyzes the universal presence and predicts the world future, and proposed many IC research reports including Hu Jintao’s social law (POSH) (中央政府网站搜索)and Obama’s foreign policy (US Congress Org). Bereaved Childhood Yonghe Zhang was born in a wealthy family. His family was classified into landlords and the property was confiscated by CCP. Mother was thus committed suicide. Father's life, chanting poetry, ignoring the family business, but can not escape the fate repressed. In 1951, when 11 years old Zhang participated in the People's Liberation Army, his father became the "Glorious Army Family Members", and was rescued. 1952 pestilence, and three sisters no one spared death. 1960 China Famine finally killed his father, from then on he becoming lonely geese from the group. Career Dream From the military demobilization in 1953 he back to school at the First Secondary School in Yongdeng, serving as students president and secretary of the Communist Youth League. Unfettered life experience evoked his determined diplomatic career dream. In addition to the Russian language offered by the school also taught himself English and Polish. He Wrote in four languages to the Foreign Affairs College to ​​contact the college entrance examination matters. During this time, an event of ruining his whole life occurred. Small Insurgent Student protests broke out against "Chenshimei CPC principals love junior school students", trendsetter is Yonghe Zhang. So Zhang was designated as the "anti-CPC " and the entire young age experienced suffering physical and mental transformation, being buried alive back to life when mining the ore. More serious is lost apply for University political qualifications. However, he did not give up the pursuit of life. When the admission exam, he chosed English as the test subjects, which the school had not been opened. He completed within 15 minutes the 1959 English entrance examination almost full marks, and admitted to Lanzhou University in the condition of being politically supervised. Spared Death Graduated from Lanzhou University in 1965, he was assigned to the Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute as an engineer. During the Cultural Revolution, when he write on the posters paper two words,“down with”,but on the back of the poster paper printed three words,“Mao Zedong” ,a political investigator found and got it as the evidence, combined with landlord family origin and history of anti-CPC faced the bad luck of being executed, thanks to the good people to hide "incriminating evidence",spared death. In 1974 he married the same fate capitalist daughter Wang Rongping. Married 10 years, the outer suburbs wife unfortunately suffering from a brain tumor, baby reared by him alone. Blip The end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976, in order to recover the lost years, wiped out a contemptuous life in difficult circumstances, he finished his paper published the ion electronegativity. 1987 elected as a Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry and Chartered Chemists. Soon, central Shanghai Municipal Office of Scientific Research convey General Secretary Hu Yaobang "four-point instructions on the care and support of Zhang. Despite drastic changes. General Secretary Hu Yaobang, unexpectedly deposed. Zhang was alluded to Hu Yaobang "liberalization" route and had to carry the young son and sick wife to the United States. Came to USA In 1988 he came to the United States in exchange for the scholar. In order to get a better medical insurance for his wife he accepted a government job as an ecology scientist for the City of New York in 1992, but his wife soon died. 20 years in the laboratory, he developed ultra-trace element analysis technology, training technical backbone. Retirement in May 2013. A Debate with Pauling on Electronegativity The concept of electronegativity was recognized as a useful ordering principle in chemistry especially since the definition given by Pauling in 1939. However, Zhang found it is unlikely to contribute to an understanding of the chemical reactions involved in the valence change, because the electronegativity of an atom is not uniquely defined and directly measured. In 1981 he established the spectroscopic quantum model for the effective nuclear charge and effective principle quantum number Z*= n*(Iz/R)½ and proposed the first ion electronegativity in valence states, quantifying the Pauling’s single-value electronegativity. Mackay et al. pointed out that the major difficulty in Pauling's electronegativity is that the attraction for an electron is clearly not expected to be the same for different valencies of an element, and they encompassed in their university text book the Zhang electronegativity in valences. But Pauling was still in the confusion “A Letter from Linus Pauling” stated: “I must say that I am not able to form a reliable opinion about the value of your work. I note that for a number of the elements your calculated values are close to my values of the electronegativity, and also that for other elements there is a considerable deviation. I suggest that you might discuss some property of the elements, in various compounds, and in different valence states, in order to find out whether or not your values are helpful in understanding the properties.” Zhang responded with the new research and a second paper, A scale for strengths of Lewis acid, was published, satisfactorily replied Pauling’s concern, wherein 126 metal ions Lewis acid strengths, in various compounds, and in different valence states, are calculated from the model: Z = z/r2 - 0.77 Xz + 8.0 . The calculation results agree fairly well with the Pearson classification and the previous work .Based on this model, a ionocovalent school formed in France headed by Josik Portier and Lenglet M, and Zhang received hundreds of appreciation letters and cards. A letter from Nobel Laureate, Henry Taube confirmed: "Electronegativity continue to be an useful concept, and becomes even more useful when it is treated as a function of oxidation state." ( “Debate on Pauling Electronegativity Confusion”.) Ionocovalency theory And new research made Zhang to find the ionocovalency duality in hydrogen atom and proposed ionocovalent theory that everything exists in Ionocovalency, the ionic energy harmonized with the covalent environment: I(Z*)(n*rc-1) = Ze2/r = n*(Iz/R)½ rc-1 which correlates with quantum potential and spectroscopy ( Ionocovalency ), in which he revealed new findings on molecular science ( Science Letter ) He proposed many chemical models and chemical property parameters: Effective nuclear charge, IC-Model (Full-Text), Ionocovalent electroegativities, Lewis cation strengths, Ionocovalent crosslink density, Ionic polarizing energy, Orbital hybrid bonding procedure, Effective principal quantum number, Ionicity, σ-covalency and spatial covalency, forming a Dual Method of the multiple-functional prediction. It could explain possible all chemical observations due to the functions of the electron configuration of 1s-nf. He unified the old antagonistic qualitative relations of the ionic-versus-covalent dichotomy of bond nature and established a new quantitative ionocovalent continuum scale (Ionocovalency in Molecular Science) In this scale, the ionic and the covalent are inversely proportional; the ‘pure’ ionic and ‘pure’ covalent bonds could be seen as two extremes of an ionocovalent continuum. And so a covalent bond scale has the ionic bond degree. He correlated ionocovalency with the macro-micro and physical laws. It is derived from the microscopic deduction of quantitative experiments and mathematics and correlated to the macroscopic induction of the universal qualitative observations. Therefore, this interpretation of the survival mechanism of the hydrogen atoms of the source of all things, through the micro-and macro-induction of Ionocovalency model, bound to describe the existence of universal things (Ionocovalency in Universal Philosophy).. Yonghe Zhang’s Major Works: * Zhang, Y. Electronegativities from Ionization Energies, J. Mol. Sci, Chinese, 1, 125(1981). * Zhang, Y. Electronegativities of Elements in Valence States and Their ...1 Electronegativities of elements in valence states, Inorg. Chem., 1982, 21 (11), pp 3886–3889 * Zhang, Y. Electronegativities of Elements in Valence States and Their ... 2 A scale for strengths of Lewis acids, Inorg. Chem., 1982, 21 (11), pp 3889–3893 * Zhang, Y. A Spectroscopic Quantum Model: 1. Effective Nuclear Charge 2. Effective Principal Quantum Number J. Am. Huilin Ins. 2012, 4, 1-23 * Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4381-4406. IC-Model Full-Text * Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 2. IC-Lewis acid strengths J. Am. Huilin Ins. 2011, 11, * Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 3. Ionocovalent Crosslink Density J. Am. Huilin Ins * Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency, J. Am. Huilin. Ins. 2011, 5, 1-11 * Zhang, Y. 离子共价性, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5 (B), 1-9 * Zhang, Y. Zhang Ionocovalency Contributions, J. Am. Huilin. Ins. Dec.11, 2010 * Zhang, Y. Universal Ionocovalency, J. Am. Huilin. Ins. 2011, 9, 26 * Zhang, Y. Am.Huilin Inst., Zhang Electronegativity, J. Am. Huilin. Ins Jan.31, 2011 * Zhang, Y. Debate on Pauling Electronegativity's Confusion, J. Am. Huilin. Ins. Nov. 19, 2011

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Professional experience

Founder, Chartered Chemist and Philosophy Researcher

American Huilin Institute, Website

July 2007 - Present

Ecology Scientist

NYC Department of Environment

August 1992 - December 2012(20 years)

Engineer, Researcher

Shanghai Petrochemical Technology Institute

September 1965 - December 1989(24 years)

Education history


Lanzhou University

September 1959 - September 1965(6 years)