This paper attempts to analyze translation shifts in the act of translating and interpreting between English and Japanese from the perspective of cognitive linguistic typology. Focusing on grammatical categories of the two languages, it analyses and characterizes the naturalness of each language; English has a cognizing subject’s viewpoint extrapositioned/fixed—a type of cognitive mode with strong self-reference whereas Japanese has a cognizing subject’s viewpoint intrapositioned/moving—a type of cognitive mode with strong re-presentation of referents. And by switching cognitive modes, translators and interpreters convert grammatical structures in order to make natural translation shifts.
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