In the present study a total of 25 marine bacterial samples were isolated from Red Sea near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The distinctive properties of 16s rRNA gene as universal phylogenetic marker was employed to carry out comprehensive diversity study of the bacterial isolates in order to reveal the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships among these isolates. These 25 isolates were found to comprise 7 species, 10 B. cereus, 5 B. thuringensis, 2 B. weihenstephanesis, 1 B. anthracis, 3 Vibrio sp, 2 Sphingomonas sp and 1 Pseudoalteromonas sp and 1 Pseudomonas putida DNA length and %GC content varied greatly between and within species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates clustered in 3 big clads. The number of sites ranged from 869 (B. thuringensis) to 1002 (B. cereus) sites, where the number of non-polymorphic sites ranged from 579 (B. thuringensis) to 985 (B. weihenstephanesis) and the number of polymorphic sites ranged from 291 (B. thuringensis) to 50 (B. weihenstephanesis). Estimation of nucleotide diversity (π) showed that not only all the analyzed sequences are unequally diverse site wise but also highly variable nucleotide wise, π ranged from 0.07 to 0.25. All isolates showed significant conserved regions (P>0.05). That is, it could be concluded that theseobserved variations in sequences and nucleotide of bacterial strains are results of adaptation to such harsh salty environment of Red sea. Further study for sequence analysis of salinity tolerance genes would be of great interest.
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