Acute Deterioration and Death with Necrotizing Enteritis Associated with Lawsonia intracellularis in 4 Weanling Horses

  • Page A
  • Fallon L
  • Bryant U
 et al. 
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Abstract

A n 8-month-old Thoroughbred colt was evaluated in October 2010 with a less than 1-day history of inappetence. Physical examination in the field revealed throat latch edema, lethargy, and fever (103.8°F) (ref 99–101.5°F). A complete blood count revealed leukocy- tosis (18.0 × 103/lL; ref 5.0–12.6 × 103/lL) with a rela- tive neutropenia (49%; ref 55–65%) and lymphopenia (26%; ref 35–45%), as well as a toxic left shift (25% bands; ref 0–5%). Serum biochemistry abnormalities included hypoproteinemia (3.3 g/dL; ref 6–7.9 g/dL), hypoalbuminemia (1.2 g/dL; ref 3.4–4.1 g/dL), and an increased BUN (45 mg/dL; ref 11–26 mg/dL), along with other abnormalities (Table S1). Lawsonia intracell- ularis-induced equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) was suspected because of the combination of hypo- proteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, inappetence, and the autumn presentation. Treatment consisted of intrave- nous oxytetracyclinea (6.6 mg/kg IV q24hr), flunixin meglumineb (1 mg/kg IV q12h), oral omeprazolec (1 mg/kg PO q24hr), dexamethasoned (0.1 mg/kg IV q24hr), intravenous crystalloid fluidse (10 mL/kg IV bolus once), and intravenous colloidsf (10 mL/kg IV bolus once). Despite treatment, the weanling was euthanized within 48 hours of presentation because of continued deterioration and signs of pulmonary disease characterized by nasal discharge, epistaxis, and tachyp- nea. Blood work submitted the morning of euthanasia revealed a worsening leukocytosis (35.4 9 103/lL) with an unchanged differential, as well as continued hypoproteinemia (3.5 g/dL), hypoalbuminemia (1.1 g/ dL), and an increased BUN (59 mg/dL). From

Author-supplied keywords

  • Bacteremia
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Endotoxemia
  • Equine proliferative enteropathy

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Authors

  • A. E. Page

  • L. H. Fallon

  • U. K. Bryant

  • D. W. Horohov

  • T. W. Luna

  • P. S. Marsh

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