The paper analyses recent developments of a number of memory-based metaheuristics such as taboo search (TS), scatter search (SS), genetic algorithms (GA) and ant colonies. It shows that the implementations of these general solving methods are increasingly similar. So, a unified presentation is proposed under the name of adaptive memory programming (AMP). A number of methods recently developed for the quadratic assignment, vehicle routing and graph colouring problems are reviewed and presented under the AMP point of view. AMP presents a number of interesting aspects such as a high parallelization potential and the ability of dealing with real and dynamic applications. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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