The action of environmental forces on continuously distributed phenotypic traits changes the mean, vari- ance, and other moments of the phenotypic distribu- tion. Changes in the phenotypic distribution within a generation can be attributed to the effects that occur of development and natural selection, and those that oc- cur across generations, from parents to offspring, attributed to transmission. are In this paper, we will ignore the effects of development and assume that within- generation change is caused by selection (Fisher, 1930; Lande and Arnold, 1983; Arnold and Wade, 1984a, 1984b). Our purpose is to reexamine recent methods for measuring selection (Lande and Arnold, 1983; Ar- nold and Wade, 1984a, 1984b), particularly instances where selection can be separated into epi- sodes or components corresponding to different tions of the life cycle.
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