Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of unknown etiology that results in the develop- ment of restriction of active and passive gleno- humeral motion. The authors will review what currently is known about the etiology of idio- pathic adhesive capsulitis, will raise unan- swered questions regarding etiology and treat- ment, and will define a stage-based evaluation and treatment program. Treatment options in- cluding benign neglect, home-based and super- vised physical therapy, intraarticular cortico- steroid injections, closed manipulations, and arthroscopic capsular release will be reviewed critically and the authors' approach to the treat- ment of patients with idiopathic adhesive cap sulitis also will he presented. Additionally, areas of future research will be defined.
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