Adipocytes exhibit abnormal subcellular distribution and translocation of vesicles containing glucose transporter 4 and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Implications regarding defects in vesicle trafficking

  • Maianu L
  • Keller S
  • Garvey W
  • 22

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 59

    Citations

    Citations of this article.

Abstract

Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is due to impaired stimulation of the glucose transport system in muscle and fat. Different defects are operative in these two target tissues because glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) expression is normal in muscle but markedly reduced in fat. In muscle, GLUT 4 is redistributed to a dense membrane compartment, and insulin-mediated translocation to plasma membrane (PM) is impaired. Whether similar trafficking defects are operative in human fat is unknown. Therefore, we studied subcellular localization of GLUT4 and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP; also referred to as vp165 or gp160), which is a constituent of GLUT4 vesicles and also translocates to PM in response to insulin. Subcutaneous fat was obtained from eight normoglycemic control subjects (body mass index, 29 +/- 2 kg/m2) and eight type 2 diabetic patients (body mass index, 30 +/- 1 kg/m2; fasting glucose, 14 +/- 1 mM). In adipocytes isolated from diabetics, the basal 3-O-methylglucose transport rate was decreased by 50% compared with controls (7.1 +/- 2.9 vs. 14.1 +/- 3.7 mmol/mm2 surface area/min), and there was no increase in response to maximal insulin (7.9 +/- 2.7 vs. 44.5 +/- 9.2 in controls). In membrane subfractions from controls, insulin led to a marked increase of IRAP in the PM from 0.103 +/- 0.04 to 1.00 +/- 0.33 relative units/mg protein, concomitant with an 18% decrease in low-density microsomes and no change in high-density microsomes (HDM). In type 2 diabetes, IRAP overall expression in adipocytes was similar to that in controls; however, two abnormalities were observed. First, in basal cells, IRAP was redistributed away from low-density microsomes, and more IRAP was recovered in HDM (1.2-fold) and PM (4.4-fold) from diabetics compared with controls. Second, IRAP recruitment to PM by maximal insulin was markedly impaired. GLUT4 was depleted in all membrane subfractions (43-67%) in diabetes, and there was no increase in PM GLUT4 in response to insulin. Type 2 diabetes did not affect the fractionation of marker enzymes. We conclude that in human adipocytes: 1) IRAP is expressed and translocates to PM in response to insulin; 2) GLUT4 depletion involves all membrane subfractions in type 2 diabetes, although cellular levels of IRAP are normal; and 3) in type 2 diabetes, IRAP accumulates in membrane vesicles cofractionating with HDM and PM under basal conditions, and insulin-mediated recruitment to PM is impaired. Therefore, in type 2 diabetes, adipocytes express defects in trafficking of GLUT4/IRAP-containing vesicles similar to those causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Authors

  • Libia Maianu

  • Susanna R. Keller

  • W. Timothy Garvey

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free