Adjuvants and autoimmunity

  • Israeli E
  • Agmon-Levin N
  • Blank M
 et al. 
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Some adjuvants may exert adverse effects upon injection or, on the other hand, may not trigger a full immunological reaction. The mechanisms underlying adjuvant adverse effects are under renewed scrutiny because of the enormous implications for vaccine development. In the search for new and safer adjuvants, several new adjuvants were developed by pharmaceutical companies utilizing new immunological and chemical innovations. The ability of the immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of special immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on leukocyte membranes. The very fact that TLR activation leads to adaptive immune responses to foreign entities explains why so many adjuvants used today in vaccinations are developed to mimic TLR ligands. Alongside their supportive role, adjuvants were found to inflict by themselves an illness of autoimmune nature, defined as ‘the adjuvant diseases’. The debatable question of sili...

Author-supplied keywords

  • Adjuvant disease
  • Adjuvants
  • Alum
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Autoimmunity
  • Gulf War syndrome (GWS)
  • Immunity
  • Inflammasome
  • Macrophgic myofaciitis
  • Mechanism
  • Mineral oil
  • Pristane
  • Silicone
  • Toll-like receptors (TLR)
  • Uric acid
  • Vaccines

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  • E. Israeli

  • N. Agmon-Levin

  • M. Blank

  • Yehuda Shoenfeld

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